Conflict and violence are prevalent in environmental and natural resources management. Individuals and groups collide when institutions establish boundaries that cause human displacements and exclusions from access to land and natural resources. I worked with a small team of researchers at Palawan State University, in cooperation with the Forest Management Bureau in the Philippines, to understand conflicts associated with encroachment of “outsiders” onto delineated community-based forest management (CBFM) areas. We endeavored to find out the extent and magnitude of conflicts in CBFM areas, as well as the various strategies upland communities employ to manage these conflicts. The study included extensive administration of surveys to people’s organizations engaged in CBFM agreements throughout the country. The surveys were supplemented with key informant in-depth interviews and participant/field observations in several communities in Palawan for a period of one year beginning October 2011.
Montefrio, M.J.F. (2015). Conflict management manual for forest communities in the Philippines. International Tropical Timber Organization.
Montefrio, M.J.F. (2013). The green economy and land conflicts. Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, 25(4), 502-509. (Link)